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Bradycardia slow heart' rate

,Bradycardia slow heart' rate:

Definition of Bradycardia:
Bradycardia is a type of abnormal heart rhythm, or arrhythmia. It occurs when the heart beats very slowly — less than 60 beats per minute. A normal heartbeat begins with an electrical impulse from the sinus node, a small area in the heart's right atrium (right upper chamber).
Tachycardia is a fast heartbeat. The heart rate is greater than 100 beats a minute.
Bradycardia is a slow heartbeat. The resting heart rate is less than 60 beats a minute.
The hearts of adults at rest usually beat between 60 and 100 times a minute. If you have bradycardia, your heart beats fewer than 60 times a minute.
Bradycardia can be a serious problem if the heart rate is very slow and the heart can't pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the body Bradycardia is a condition where your heart beats fewer than 60 times per minute, which is unusually slow. This condition may be dangerous if it keeps your heart from pumping enough blood to meet your body's needs.

A heart rate below 60 bpm while resting is too slow for most people. A slow heart rate, also known as bradycardia, can be normal for people like athletes who are very fit. If you have a slow heart rate and are experiencing symptoms like fainting and tiredness, you should make an appointment with your GP.
Fear and the feeling of being in a helpless situation causes intensive vagal activation with ensuing severe bradycardia or asystole and vasovagal syncope
A normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. Generally, a lower heart rate at rest implies more efficient heart function and better cardiovascular fitness. For example, a well-trained athlete might have a normal resting heart rate closer to 40 beats per minute.
An athlete's resting heart rate may be considered low when compared to the general athletic bradycardia:
A young, healthy athlete may have a heart rate of 30 to 40 bpm. That's because exercise strengthens the heart muscle. It allows it to pump a greater amount of blood with each heartbeat

Bradycardia is a slower than normal heart rate (below 60 beats per minute (bpm)). If you're sleeping or if you're a young, healthy adult or very fit, it can be normal to have a heart rate of 40 – 60 bpm. Bradycardia can cause you to feel faint, dizzy, short of breath, fatigued or have chest pain.

Bradycardia Symptoms
•Chest pain (Your doctor may call this angina.)
•Feeling very tired (fatigue)
•Heart palpitations (a fluttering feeling in your chest or being aware of your own heartbeat)
•Shortness of breath.
•Memory problems, •Confusion, or trouble concentrating.
•Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting

Causes bradycardia:
Metabolic problems such as hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone) Damage to the heart from aging, heart disease or heart attack. Certain heart medications that can cause bradycardia as a side effect. Congenital heart defects (present at birth)
.A history of electrolyte abnormalities.Heart disease. Kidney disease Thyroid problems. A heart rate below 40 beats per minute — this is considered dangerously low.
Most adult hearts beat between 50 and 100 times per minute at rest. If you have bradycardia, your resting heart rate is slower than usual—beating fewer than 50 times per minute.A heart rate below 40 beats per minute — this is considered dangerously low Bradycardia can be harmless, but in some cases it can be life threatening.Severe cases of bradycardia can lead to fainting spells and dizziness and, in the most severe cases, may contribute to the risk of an ischemic stroke
Diagnosis of bradycardia:
To diagnose bradycardia, a health care provider will usually perform a physical exam and listen to your heart with a stethoscope. He or she may ask you questions about your symptoms and medical history..Bradycardia can sometimes be diagnosed in your physician's office with an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). The diagnosis of this condition requires an ECG showing a normal sinus rhythm at a rate lower than 60 bpm But when bradycardia is an occasional event, a regular ECG may be normal.

Treatment for bradycardia depends on the severity of symptoms and the cause of the slow heart rate. If you don't have symptoms, treatment might not be necessary. Bradycardia treatment may include lifestyle changes, medication changes or an implanted device called a pacemaker.

Ways to get your heart rate up:
•Set an incline. If you're on the treadmill increase the incline.
•Take the stairs. Just like adding an incline, stairs bring a new challenge to your workout.
•Alter your pace.
•Take shorter breaks
Measures to fix bradycardia at home'
Bradycardia is often the result of another heart condition, so a heart-healthy lifestyle can help improve your overall health. This lifestyle includes: Having a heart-healthy eating plan that includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans, lean meat, fish, and whole grains. Limit alcohol, sodium, and sugar.

Exercise is good for bradycardia.
Get regular exercise. Taking a brisk 30-minute walk each day can raise your heart rate and positively impact your health. Your doctor can help you determine what type of physical activity is right for you.
Try for 2½ hours a week. If you do not have other heart problems, you likely do not have limits on the type or level of activity that you can do. You may want to walk, swim, bike, or do other activities.

Types of exercise to try with bradycardia
Brisk walking, which is a pace of at least 2.5 miles per hour (mph)
Cycling slower than 10 mph.
Water aerobics.
Aminoacid Tyramine to increase heart rate:
Alcohol, aged cheeses, cured meats and dried fruit contain this amino acid. Tyramine can raise blood pressure and cause heart palpitations.

The best medicine for bradycardia:
Atropine. In the absence of reversible causes, atropine remains the first-line drug for acute symptomatic bradycardia
The drug of choice is usually atropine 0.5–1.0 mg given intravenously at intervals of 3 to 5 minutes, up to a dose of 0.04 mg/kg.
Other emergency drugs that may be given include adrenaline (epinephrine) and dopamine.

Antidepressants. Certain medicines used to treat depression can raise your heart rate. They include serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, and venlafaxine, and tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline, clomipramine, desipramine, and others.

Best treatment for bradycardia:
For many people with bradycardia, a permanent pacemaker is the best way to treat this condition. This is especially effective with conditions like sick sinus syndrome, where your heart's natural pacemaker cells aren't working properly.

Information compiled by Dr Bhairavsinh Raol