Structural Unemployment A comprehensive Study in English Business by JUGAL KISHORE SHARMA books and stories PDF | Enempoyment In India The Basic Study A Essay

Enempoyment In India The Basic Study A Essay

न कश्चित कस्यचित मित्रम्, न कश्चित कस्यचितरिपुरू। व्यवहारेण जायंते, मित्राणि रिप्वस्तथा।।

आलस्यम् हि मनुष्याणाम् शरीरस्थो महान् रिपु:। नास्त्युद्यमसमो बंधु: कृत्वा यम् नावसीदति।।

ततः प्रजापतिः प्रणिपपात नमोनम इति । तथैवर्चाथ तमस्तौत् ।
उग्रमित्याह उग्रः खलु वा एष मृगरूपत्वात् । वीरमित्याह
वीरो वा एष वीर्यवत्त्वात् । महाविष्णुमित्याह महतां वा अयं
महान्रोदसी व्याप्य स्थितः । ज्वलन्तमित्याह ज्वलन्निव खल्वसाववस्थितः ।
सर्वतोमुखमित्याह सर्वतः खल्वयं मुखवान्विश्वरूपत्वात् ।
नृसिंहमित्याह यथा यजुरेवैतत् । भीषणमित्याह भीषा वा
अस्मादादित्य उदेति भीतश्चन्द्रमा भीतो वायुर्वाति भीतोऽग्निर्दहति
भीतः पर्जन्यो वर्षति । भद्रमित्याह भद्रः खल्वयं श्रिया जुष्टः ।
मृत्योर्मृत्युमित्याह मृत्योर्वा अयं मृत्युरमृतत्वं प्रजानामन्नादानाम् ।
नमामीत्याह यथा यजुरेवैतत् । अहमित्याह यथा यजुरेवैतत् ॥

Self-employment is the state of working for oneself rather than an employer or more simply, a person earning his own self-paid job. Tax authorities will generally view a person as self-employed if the person chooses to be recognised as such or if the person is generating income for which a tax return needs to be filed.What are the causes of corruption in India?
The causes of corruption in India include excessive regulations, complicated tax and licensing systems, numerous government departments with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly of government controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes.

According to the July wave of the Ipsos What Worries the World global monthly survey, Urban Indians were found to be worried about a host of issues that were seen to be impacting their lives. The issues in the pecking order included, Unemployment (37%), financial and political corruption (29%), crime and violence (26%), poverty and social inequality (22%), coronavirus (20%), climate change (17%) and inflation (16%).


“So let us recognise our shame and guilt; let us ache with self-reflection; let us eradicate the repetition of suffering and resist anger; let us learn to concretely tend to the suffering of an individual, of our common citizens, with equality; let us learn to live life with honour and dignity and a wealth of humanity.”
― Liu Xiaobo


The labor force excludes people who are of working age but are neither employed nor looking for a job—such as students and homemakers. But the labor force also leaves out jobless people who were in the job market unsuccessfully for so long that they stopped looking for a job. Such discouraged workers are one reason why unemployment statistics can underestimate the true demand for jobs in an economy. Another form of hidden unemployment in statistics comes from counting as employed anyone who did any work for pay (or profit, if self-employed) in the week before the government survey. This hides the demand for work by people who would prefer full-time employment but cannot find it.


Interestingly, unemployment or joblessness wasn’t just a worry among Indians, there were other markets impacted as well. South Africa had 65% respondents worrying about unemployment and Colombia 48%. And the markets where unemployment was way low in the pecking order or almost non-existent included Netherlands (7%), Germany (8%), Hungary (9%), France (12%) and the US.

Of the 22.05 crore applications received from 2014-15 to 2021-22, only 7.22 lakh or 0.33 per cent, were recommended for appointment in different Central government departments, the government informed the Lok Sabha on Wednesday.


Self-employment is the state of working for oneself rather than an employer or more simply, a person earning his own self-paid job. Tax authorities will generally view a person as self-employed if the person chooses to be recognised as such or if the person is generating income for which a tax return needs to be filed.


While the results from studies examined in this review clearly support the claim for a reliable deterioration in mental health being associated with unemployment,the literature reviewed (obviously) does have its limitations in providing acomprehensive understanding of this topic area. For example, Osipow & Fitzgerald(1993), in their selective review of the relationship between unemployment and mental health, raised the question of the generalizability of research findings originating from the large body of work on this topic carried out in the UK . The role of the country of origin in in uencing the results obtained in particular studies is diYcult to determine but it is perhaps noteworthy that the authors of one of the two studies that did not yield results supportive of the proposed relationship of mental health to employment status did speculate that ‘the unique Dutch structural and cultural context [was] responsible for the major finding of the current study, namely that the negative changes in employment status are minimally related to psychological distress’ (Schaufeli & Van Y peren, 1992, p. 302). By ‘unique . . . context’ Schaufeli and Van Y peren were referring to the availability of relatively high unemployment beneifts and the existence in The Netherlands of a tendency towards cultural normalization of unemployment. Related to this consideration of cultural factors which might limit the external validity of any conclusions drawn from the studies examined, is the concern noted by Turner (1995) about the ‘economic context’ within which job loss occurs. One weakness of most studies in Table 1 is that, for obvious practical reasons, samples have generally been drawn from a single geographic area. Consequently, according to Turner (1995), in the majority of studies the local economic context in which unemployment is experienced has been essentially invariant. The valid research question raised by Turner’s concern is whether the local job market affect vulnerability to the health eVects of unemployment. The findings from his cross-sectional study suggest that the local employment situation influences the impact of unemployment on psychological and physical distress. ‘Specically, it is better to lose a job when the chances for re-employment are good’.The overwhelming majority of the studies in Table 1 support the contention that unemployment has on average a negative psychological impact on the individual who loses his or her job. The most common threats to the internal validity of this conclusion (those to do with a selection eVect whereby the more capable stay in, or move into, employment) do not seem to obtain in the majority of the surveyed studies. Furthermore, the two studies which were best placed to control for potential confounding variables both concluded that unemployment per se had an eVect on mental health. While there are many questions about the precise nature of the unemployment experience of particular individuals or groups which have not The eÚ ect of unemployment on mental health been addressed in this review, there is one other major question that can be addressed by examining the results obtained in the studies listed in second question is ‘How large is the mental health eVect of unemployment?’ The last section of this paper will examine this question. If it is accepted that

(a) Definition of poverty:
Poverty is a socio-economic phenomenon in which a section of society is unable to fulfill even its basic necessities of life. In view of Sanskrit literatures` we can presume that , poverty is a social disease which is incurable and death is better than poverty .For this context Charudatta ,the chief character of the drama Mrichhakatikam by Sudraka ,says

Signifying that ,in between poverty and death he welcomes death not poverty .

(b) Result of poverty :
The pictures of harmful effect of the poverty which has been painted by the eminent Sanskrit writers in their various renown are most horrible .About the insufferable sufferings of poverty Bishnusharma says many slokas in his fable literature named Panchatantram . One of them is

Meaning of this sloka is ,the virtues without money lose their lustre; character purify, forgiveness, skill, gentility and noble birth- all these fail utterly to lend lustre to an impoverished man .It is a universal truth that ,all will be lost of a man who has been eclipsed by the poverty for a long period . Not only Pandit Bishnusharma , unkindness of poverty has been strongly depicted by Sudraka in the starting of his 10th act play Mrichhakatikam is ---

The sloka clarifies that ,Shame comes from poverty ,weakness comes from shamelessness ,neglegence comes from weakness ,despondency comes from neglegency ,overwhelmeness with grief comes from despondency , mental disorder comes from grief and at last death comes from mental disorder .So poverty is the root of all adversity . In reviewing these two books of sanskrit literature we could say that ,poverty is a social disease which is harmful then death - 
Poverty reduction through the financial inclusion in classical sanskrit literature :
Thought on poverty reduction by the sanskrit scholars is very modern in its outlook .In Mrichhakatikam, Sudraka tries to reduce poverty through financial help .For instance ,in this drama it has been depicted that ,due to his extreme poverty ,Charudatta could not fulfil the requirements of his son ,Rohosen .But as a social worker ,an enrich prostitute Basantasena wants to remove his poverty by giving her very precious ornaments .Not only this ,in this drama ,this prostitute rescued and established a gambler who was going to end his life for his vast debts .In this manner Sudraka illustrates that ,poverty reduction and fiscal growth is possible through financial help. Simultaneously ,this dramatist also says in this drama that, financial help emaciates poverty provided it is endowed is in proper space ,otherwise efforts will be fruitless like that of Charudatta .Charudatta was a very rich man , he also wanted to eradicate poverty of his neighbors through financial help .But he was failed and destroyed himself due to failure of choosing actual man for financial help . So ,in view of this drama ,we can presume that, if financial help or financial inclusion is properly executed , then poverty will be reduced ,but improper efforts would destroy the endowers

financial institutions .
Kautilya`s View on poverty reduction and financial growth of people within a kingdom :

Kautilya's Arthashastra, a Sanskrit work comprising a period of 321-296 BC., is more known for its contents on economy and polity, but the work also contains information and instructions about various aspects of Financial Management and Administration, which are very relevant in contemporary business management. This is perhaps the oldest book on Management available to the world. The book, written in Sanskrit discusses theories and principles of governing a state. It is not an account of Mauryan administration. The title Arthashastra, means "the science of material Gain" or "science of Polity". According to Kautilya, the ruler should use any means to attain his goal and his actions required moral sanctions . The problems discussed here are the most practical kind. At first ,we shoud think about the conception of economics of Kautilya . Given the central position of the Mauryan State in directing economic activity and providing security, the importance is the adequate receipts of
for the treasury was stressed. In doing so, Kautilya develops principles of taxation that are to be found in modern texts. His discussion on public economics and finance is extensive. However, he was keenly aware that the fortunes of the Treasury and the prosperity of the nation depends on its development of agriculture,

industry, trade and commerce and the efficient functioning of these economic sectors. He suggests various policies that the State should follow to foster their development. At the heart of Kautilyan economics there exist the obligation of the State to provide for the social security and welfare of the people. The State was required to help the poor and helpless and to be proactive in contributing to the welfare of its citizens. This basic social principle appears to have appealed to many Indians over the centuries.
provides much basic knowledge about economics, and several of its conceptions are still relevant. However, the political economy emphasized in it, or the economic system described, is one relevant to Mauryan period. Kautilya did not believe that ,it would be applicable neither for all times nor to all social settings. In that, as in many other respects, he displayed great wisdom. The ‘Arthasastra’ consists of detailed analysis of different aspects of ancient Indian economy. 
The basis of Arthashastra

is that one must strive to generate wealth, resources, and money, and share it equitably to create happiness for oneself and others. Such generation of wealth must be nurtured through ethical means, which alone will lead to overall happiness.

Good governance in Kautilya's literature is aimed at fulfilling the welfare of the people. "
In the happiness of the subjects lies the happiness of the king, in their welfare, his welfare.

There is major emphasis in
on the duty of the king to assist in ensuring the social security of his subjects and a requirement that the king help the handicapped and the unfortunate. For example, he said that :

Meaning of this statement is that ,the king shall provide the orphans (bāla), the aged, the infirm, the afflicted, and the helpless with material support . He shall also provide subsistence to helpless women when they are carrying and also to the children they give birth to .

Furthermore, during Kautilya’s time, the king had responsibility for food security. Agricultural stocks were kept in the Royal granaries to ward off public distress, and the king directed the retention of half the annual produce for the relief of distress; and provided poor persons with food and seed to enable them to start farming. The Article 41 ,in the constitution of India says that “The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want” and the Article 42 says that “The To exploit someone is to take unfair advantage of them. It is to use another person’s vulnerability for one’s own benefit. Of course, benefitting from another’s vulnerability is not always morally wrong—we do not condemn a chess player for exploiting a weakness in his opponent’s defense, for instance. But some forms of advantage-taking do seem to be clearly wrong, and it is this normative sense of exploitation that is of primary interest to moral and political philosophers. Exploitation can be transactional or structural. In the former case, the unfairness is a property of a discrete transaction between two or more individuals. A sweatshop that pays low wages, for example, or a pharmaceutical research firm that tests drugs on poor subjects in the developing world, might be said to exploit others in this sense. But exploitation can also be structural—a property of institutions or systems in which the “rules of the game” unfairly benefit one group of people to the detriment of another. As we will see below, Karl Marx believed that the economic and political institutions of capitalism were exploitative in this sense. And some contemporary feminists have argued that the institution of traditional marriage is exploitative insofar as it preys upon and reinforces pernicious forms of inequality between men and women 

Exploitation can also be harmful or mutually beneficial. Harmful exploitation involves an interaction that leaves the victim worse off than she was, and than she was entitled to be. The sort of exploitation involved in coercive sex trafficking, for instance, is harmful in this sense. But as we will see below, not all exploitation is harmful. Exploitation can also be mutually beneficial, where both parties walk away better off than they were ex ante. What makes such mutually beneficial interactions nevertheless exploitative is that they are, in some way, unfair.

It is relatively easy to come up with intuitively compelling cases of unfair, exploitative behavior. Providing a philosophical analysis to support and develop those intuitions, however, has proven more difficult. The most obvious difficulty is specifying the conditions under which a transaction or institution may be said to be unfair. Does the unfairness involved in exploitation necessarily involve some kind of harm to its victim? Or a violation of her moral rights? Is the unfairness involved in exploitation a matter of procedure, substance, or both? And how, if at all, are facts about the history of the agents involved or the background conditions against which they operate relevant to assessing charges of exploitation?


In the world's wealthiest nations, members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, at least 34 million people are unemployed. In the European Union, unemployment increased last year to an average of 11.3 per cent of the workforce, with France, Germany, Italy and Sweden registering significant increases. In the United States, on the other hand, job creation has intensified and unemployment has dipped below 5 per cent. Unemployment rates have also declined in the United Kingdom. In both countries, however, income disparities have tended to widen. In 2021, South Africa had the highest unemployment rate in the world, at 34 percent. Of the 10 countries with the highest unemployment rates, eight were in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the transition economies of Eastern and Central Europe, unemployment rates declined slightly but remained at double­digit levels. In Russia and some other countries of the former Soviet Union, unemployment continued to increase. Chhattisgarh has the least unemployment rate among the Indian states, while Haryana has the highest unemployment rate. (Higher rank represents higher unemployment among the population).

Among Latin American countries, Colombia posted a rise in unemployment from 8 to over 10 per cent. Unemployment increased in urban areas in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Jamaica, Mexico, Uruguay and Venezuela. In sub­Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia, data on direct unemployment hardly exists, but problems of massive underemployment and poverty persist in these low­income regions.

The ILO believes that nothing short of a renewed international commitment to full employment is required to reverse the poverty, unemployment and underemployment now prevailing in so many parts of the globe.

"It is not just heartless but pernicious to assume that nothing can be done to remedy unemployment, that so­called "jobless growth" (when a country's gross domestic product, or GDP, grows with no substantial job growth) is the best that can be hoped for in an increasingly competitive economy or that current rates of unemployment somehow constitute a natural and inevitable outcome of market forces," says ILO Director­General Michel Hansenne. "Current levels of unemployment make no economic sense and are neither politically nor socially sustainable."

The ILO Report identifies the underlying causes of deteriorating labour market conditions as being: Lower growth rates in industrialized countries since 1973 and the failure of most developing economies to recover fully from the economic crisis of the early 1980s; Slow adjustment of wages to declining labour productivity and the emergence of wage inflation, which lasted until the mid-1980s; The progressive eviction from the world of work of the long-term unemployed and the increasing casualization of millions of workers in informal sector activities. The report concludes that while there is no single ideal prescription for developing, industrialized and transition economies, the "priority requirement for reversing the prolonged deterioration in employment conditions is the restoration of high and sustained rates of economic growth." Full Employment: feasible and highly desirable In a direct challenge to much publicized arguments which forecast an era of "jobless growth", the ILO emphasizes that there is little empirical basis for the notion that globalization, technological change or corporate downsizing are ushering in an era of jobless growth or bringing about the end of work as most people have known it. The report attributes much popular theorizing about the "end-of-work" and "jobless growth" to "unwarranted extrapolations from dramatic episodes of corporate downsizing, ignoring compensatory job creation elsewhere in the economy". These anxieties, the report notes, are understandable "given the almost worldwide deterioration of employment conditions", the size of layoffs and "...the concentration of job losses in particular economic sectors and communities." "There has in fact been no generalized decline in the employment intensity of economic growth in spite of rising unemployment... Similarly, while there has been some increase in self-employment, part-time work and other non-standard forms of employment, this has not meant the disappearance of regular jobs. Data on job tenure do not show any generalized decline in either the period employed individuals have been with their current employer or in projected future tenure. At the same time, there is also no evidence that the rate of job change has increased in labour markets." The ILO maintains that "the concept of full employment, suitably updated, should remain as a principal objective of economic and social policy".Michel Hansenne warned against spurning the full employment ideal that guided national and international social policy in the post-WWII decades: "Abandoning the goal of full employment means lowering social expectations at a time when the world economy is becoming more integrated through trade and investment flows". "These forces," he said, "have the potential for spurring higher rates of economic growth and job creation and thus higher levels of well being and social justice." But they need to be harnessed by the right mix of social and economic policies.Trade, Technology and Globalization The ILO argues that, contrary to popular misconceptions, the world's job woes are not being driven by rapid technological progress and trade liberalization, both of which are necessary to stimulating economic growth and productivity. Trade between industrialized and developing economies "is only a minor explanatory factor behind the rise in the unemployment of low-skilled workers and in wage inequality in the industrialized countries." The report notes that the experience of dynamic Asian economies provides evidence that "sound domestic policies, expanding global trade and investment flows provide rich opportunities for higher rates of economic growth and job creation." However powerful the forces of globalization the ILO points out that it is not "an overwhelming supra-national force" and that "national macroeconomic, structural and labour-market policies are still the dominant influence on economic and labour market outcomes in any country." Even in an era inclined to minimal government intervention "national policies can and should, also give priority to mitigating the negative social effects of globalization". Increased international cooperation is also possible "especially with respect to maintaining progress towards freer trade and investment flows, reducing the risks of instability to the financial system and preventing the erosion of basic labour standards." Boosting Non-inflationary Growth Foremost among the requirements for reversing the drift away from full employment is "to reverse the trend decline in growth rates over the past two decades" in industrialized countries. While much academic literature maintains that expansionary efforts to boost growth rates will inevitably founder on the rocks of inflation or supply-side constraints, the ILO report insists that a deficiency in demand could well be responsible for the prolonged period of slow growth in the world economy and that wage inflation can be held in check if industrial practices and labour-market regulations are designed to do so. If countries are to begin creating jobs and reversing wage inequality, it is necessary to increase economic growth rates while strengthening institutional mechanisms for moderating wage inflation and improving the design and implementation of labour-market policies, paying particular to the long-term unemployed, says the ILO report. The report says that "higher growth is possible provided a sustained period of expansionary policies is supported by credible policies to prevent a resurgence of inflationary wage increases and to overcome the skill shortages that will be generated." Mechanisms for moderating wage inflation are the second prerequisite if the expansionary impulse is to avoid being choked off by the reaction of financial markets. The report acknowledges that while no easy solutions exist, several options are worth exploring, including "strengthening of the coordination of wage bargaining through the synchronization of bargaining periods and the provision of consensus forecasts of future economic possibilities." Other options include social pacts between employers, workers and governments, the encouragement of profit-sharing and tax-based incomes policies. The third requirement for reversing the rise in unemployment is "to improve the design and implementation of labour-market policies." In industrialized countries this includes reforming unemployment benefits systems. Subsidies and payroll tax measures designed to promote the reintegration of long-term unemployed may prove useful, but should be examined carefully because of the possible side effects. Additional measures include "the correction of market failures which result from the underprovision of training" as well as "training programmes targeted on the most disadvantaged groups in the labour market." The report maintains that the most often-cited solution for problems linked to high unemployment, further labour market deregulation, is not supported by empirical evidence. While recognizing that there may well be aspects of labour-market regulations that need reforming in different countries, the report argues that "there is no basis for a blanket presumption that these regulations are invariably sources of rigidity and that deregulation is automatically the optimal solution." In many cases labour-market regulations have the positive benefit of promoting higher productivity and protecting vulnerable workers. 
Transition Economies
The unemployment problem in transition economies results from "the legacy of labour hoarding in state-owned enterprises carried over from the previous economic system." Although enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have already undertaken substantial restructuring, often at the cost of increased unemployment and poverty, the report says that "a formidable challenge still remains in terms of restructuring uncompetitive enterprises and of adjusting the structure of enterprises in order to raise labour productivity." Given the high and potentially intolerable social tensions this is likely to generate, ILO underscores the importance for these countries of choosing "economic policies and labour-market institutions that are most likely to reduce unemployment." Obstacles to new enterprise development need to be reduced and barriers to foreign investment (such as uncertain legal procedures and inadequacies in the business infrastructure) need to be dealt with. Other practical problems include inadequate housing market flexibility and the difficulty of ensuring adequate social protection for workers affected by restructuring. An array of measures, including an improved institutional framework in which unions and employers' organizations can undertake effective collective bargaining may need to be supplemented by temporary measures to contain the rise in unemployment.

Developing Economies
The majority of workers in developing countries "are engaged in low-productivity work that is often physically onerous but yet yields only meagre earnings." Although the ILO report acknowledges that full-employment is a long-term objective for most developing countries, it nonetheless "provides a useful framework for the formulation of employment policy." The targets policy makers should aim for include "a rate of growth of productive, modern-sector jobs that exceeds the rate of growth of the labour force and a reduction in the extent of underemployment in the rural and urban informal sectors of the economy." The report attributes the deteriorating employment conditions in many parts of the developing world (other than in the dynamic Asian economies) to "the failure to recover fully from the economic crisis of the early 1980s. Slower, and in many cases, even negative growth has meant stagnation in the creation of modern-sector jobs and consequent overcrowding in low-productivity activities.

The report calls for economic reforms, where necessary, in order to achieve macroeconomic stability and begin generating an "environment conducive to high savings and investment and the efficient allocation of resources" in order to permit developing countries to "benefit fully from expanding trade and investment flows in the global economy." The report adds that in many cases "pure market reforms often need to be supplemented by public investment and other measures to strengthen the supply response of producers to new economic incentives."




According to classical economic theory, every market, including the labor market, should have a point at which it clears—where supply and demand are equal. Yet the very existence of unemployment seems to imply that in labor markets around the world, the demand for and supply of labor fail to reach an equilibrium. Do labor markets continually fail?

Sometimes it is a matter of wages, or the unit price of labor, not adjusting to clear the market. Some workers, particularly skilled ones, may have reservation wages below which they are not willing to work, but which are higher than what employers are willing to pay. Alternatively, the wage an employer is willing to pay may be lower than the legal minimum wage set by governments to try to ensure that wages can sustain a living. When such rigidities in the labor market lead to a shortage of jobs, it creates structural unemployment, and those who are structurally unemployed tend to have longer spells of joblessness, on average.

But the inflexibility of wages does not fully explain the perennial nature of unemployment. Some level of unemployment will always exist for no other reason than that there always will be some people who are between jobs or just starting out their careers. These people are unemployed not because there is a shortage of jobs in the market, but because finding a job takes time. Such temporary spells of unemployment are referred to as frictional unemployment.


अधमा: धनमिच्छन्ति धनम् मानम् च मध्यमा:। उत्तमा: मानमिच्छांति मानो हि महताम् धनं।।



Few non-Marxists argue that there is or at least should be something like a right to be employed—that is, an independent individual right to some sort ofmeaningful job that is enforceable against either a particular private employer or the state, and I do not intend to spend any time discussing the Marxist posi- tion here, for two reasons. First, because such discussions are already plentiful elsewhere. 1 And second, because I am going to start with the assumption that we have already decided, for whatever reason, that we will not seek to replace capi- talism with socialism—that is, we have already decided to opt for mostly private ownership of the means of production and a free-market economy moderated by the protections of political liberalism instead of a system of public ownership of the means of production and a centrally planned economy, with or without the
protections of political liberalism, regardless of the effect on unemployment that this decision may or may not have. So while I believe that Marxism (and for that matter all other forms of what we commonly call socialism) does not provide an attractive answer to the problem of unemployment, all things considered, I shall not argue for that position here, although I shall use the work of some Marxist critics of capitalism as well as the work of a great many capitalist economists to help explore what capitalism and especially liberal capitalism really entails. Nevertheless, nothing I am going to say in this work requires anyone to abandon the view that some form of socialism offers an attractive solution to the problem of unemployment if that is the view they currently maintain. Even those people  should find plenty to interest them in the discussion I do present, however, for even socialists should be interested in seeing what resources can be found to address the problem of unemployment within a liberal capitalist state if we take the presuppositions of liberalism and capitalism seriously enough. M. R. Reiff, On Unemployment Of course, the particular collection of political and economic views that make up “the liberal capitalist state” can itself take a variety of forms. The exact contents of both liberalism and capitalism can be and often are disputed. Which particular aspects of these views should be considered fundamental can be and often is disputed too. But I do not think there is any need to be more precise than this about what I mean by “the liberal capitalist state.” Suffice it to say that all the Western capitalist democracies would fall within this definition and most emerging ones as well. And those who wish to have the idea of what constitutes a liberal capitalist state cashed out in greater detail can refer to the discussions of this contained in my other works. Within a liberal capitalist state, of course, I do take it as uncontroversial that opportunities for both public and private employment must be open to all, that is, available on a nondiscriminatory basis to all those with a right to work. But this does not imply that frustrated applicants have their rights violated when their applications for employment are unsuccessful for nondiscriminatory rea-sons even though they were better qualified for the job than the applicant who was successful. If it did, think what this would mean—it would put the judi- ciary in charge of comparing the qualifications of potentially every applicant for every job in the economy, a Herculean task and one for which the judiciary has insufficient expertise at best and in most cases no expertise at all. Their deci-sions would accordingly be much more likely to be wrong than right, and the economic inefficiency that would likely result from putting the wrong people in the wrong jobs is potentially enormous. Add in what would undoubtedly be the huge transaction costs of this kind of judicial review of all employment decisions and it is clear that such a right would be both counterproductive and unwork-able. And of course this would still not solve the unemployment problem, for there is no guarantee that there will be enough jobs open in the private sector that each member of society who wants to work will be the most qualified for some position.
The only way to ensure that there was a job to which each member of soci-ety had a right would accordingly be to give everyone who was unable to find work in the private sector an enforceable right to employment with the state. But there are multiple problems here too. If this right is merely a right to a job at the minimum wage, then this provides little solace to anyone qualified for something more than this. It also creates a moral hazard for unskilled workers, removing their incentive to look for work themselves (because they can get it from the state without looking), and this might even reduce their incentive to seek out education and training so that they could qualify for positions that pay higher wages (why incur these costs if you might end up getting a mere minimum-wage job anyway?). And there are other practical problems too. What if the right is not just a right to a job, then, but a right to a job at the highest wage for which the citizen is qualified? Unfortunately, we still have a moral hazard problem, but now it is worse, for it now applies to all workers, not just unskilled ones, plus under most economic conditions it would be cheaper
for the state to simply pay those who were unable to find work rather than actu-ally put them to work in the occupations for which they are qualified.


The combination of these factors brings about a long-term average around which the unemployment rate tends to fluctuate, called the natural rate of unemployment (NRU). The term “natural” does not mean it is a given that cannot be changed; to the contrary, it implies that labor market characteristics, which are mostly driven by policies, determine it. For example, the relatively high rate of unemployment in Europe compared with the United States is in part attributed to Europe’s stronger unions and stricter labor regulations. These labor market institutions may give European workers a better bargaining position, but they can also render workers too expensive for employers. In the United States, unionization is lower and labor markets are more flexible, but workers have traditionally enjoyed higher employment rates than their European counterparts.

The natural rate of unemployment is sometimes called the nonaccelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU), because it is consistent with an economy that is growing at its long-term potential, so there is no upward or downward pressure on inflation. The flip side of this argument suggests that whenever unemployment temporarily deviates from the NAIRU, inflation is affected. Consider a recession, a period of low economic activity. With lower demand for goods and services, firms start laying off workers and at the same time refrain from raising prices. So unemployment rises and inflation falls during recessions. This trade-off between unemployment and inflation—described by the Phillips curve (named after the late New Zealand economist William Phillips)—is only temporary, though; once prices adjust to a new equilibrium that clears the goods and services market, firms go back to producing at full capacity and unemployment once again falls—to the NAIRU.

Understanding what is behind the long-term equilibrium rate of unemployment helps policymakers understand how they can, and cannot, change it. For example, policies that try to lower unemployment by boosting consumer demand (thereby raising production) can do so only temporarily, and at the cost of higher inflation later. However, policies that are geared toward easing frictional or structural unemployment can boost employment without necessarily affecting inflation.



“Life numbed, unceasing, interminable, from zero begins to zero it ends.” ― Xiaobo Liu, June Fourth Elegies


The psychological and social costs of retrenchment and prolonged unemployment during the productive years of life impact harshly on the quality of life of affected individuals and families. Experiences of low self-esteem and loss of self identity impact on physical and mental health and can extend to broader consequences of social isolation and the loss of social networks and support. The impact of redundancy causes family disruption and breakdown. At the very least it reduces people’s sense of membership and contribution to the life of the community.


A situation where an individual is actively looking for a job but is unable to find it is unemployment. It is a major criterion to measure the economy’s health i.e. growth and development. The unemployment rate is the main outcome that indicates the situation in the country.

You get it by dividing no. of unemployed individuals by the no. of individuals in the labor force. The current unemployment rate in India is 3.5% according to the International Labour Organization. The formula to calculate it is –

Unemployment rate = (Unemployed Workers / Total labour force) × 100

The National Sample Survey Organization categorizes employment and unemployment based on an individual’s activity. A person is employed when he is actively engaging in economic activity. He is unemployed when he is looking for work but is unable to find it.

And the third category is neither looking for work nor available for it. This is to measure the GDP at the end of every financial year. Because the first two categories make it to the total labor force while the last one is not counted.

Types of Unemployment in India
Disguised Unemployment -Disguised unemployment is unemployment that does not affect aggregate economic output. It occurs when productivity is low and too many workers are filling too few jobs. It can refer to any part of the population that is not employed at full capacity.
This situation is when the number of employed individuals is more than needed. This is common in agricultural sectors. 
Even the unorganized sector of India faces the same problem. 
Seasonal Unemployment This type of unemployment is according to different seasons of the year. An example would be farmers working in harvest season only.  Seasonal unemployment occurs when people are unemployed at particular times of the year when demand for labour is lower than usual. Seasonal unemployment refers to a temporary window of time where the number of available employment opportunities decreases.
The agricultural laborers in India face this problem every year. Structural Unemployment This is a situation that arises when the employment opportunities available don’t match with an Individual’s skill. An example would be the availability of a bank manager post but the individual only possesses marketing skills. This may be because of a lack of education or training in India. Cyclical Unemployment - Cyclical unemployment is the impact of economic recession or expansion on the total unemployment rate. Cyclical unemployment generally rises during recessions and falls during economic expansions and is a major focus of economic policy. This is common in a capitalist economy and thus not a case in India. This is a citation when the employment increases in a recession and falls during the growth of the economy. Technological Unemployment This is a classic example of what happened during the Industrial revolution The machines replaced manual labor and thus led to unemployment. This kind of unemployment is due to changes in technology. Like the World Bank’s assumption of India losing 69% of jobs due to automation. Frictional Unemployment It is the search for unemployment where the individual is unemployed for some time only. This may be between job hunts or between graduation and job positioning. This is voluntary as they are making their own decision to leave and join. Vulnerable Employment This is a situation when there is no legal proof to back up job security. This is common in wage workers where there is no record of them working thus they are unemployed. India faces this at large as the number of people in unorganized sectors is high.  Unemployment Trap and Harmonized Unemployment This is a situation when a person gets used to not working. The benefits of being unemployed get heavier and the individuals feel demotivated to work again. This is a common case when the income is low and the efforts needed to work are high. Harmonized unemployment rates refer to unemployed individuals in their working age who are looking to find work. This estimate of the unemployment rate is more relevant internationally as it calculates the % of the labor force seasonally. Whether governments should intervene to improve the earnings and livelihoods of subsistence entrepreneurs through entrepreneurship programs is, in the end, a question about the social benefits and costs of the intervention. One strand of research suggests that programs to promote entrepreneurship should target individuals with the highest growth potential, with sufficient cognitive skills and entrepreneurial aptitude. This implies that the support subsistence entrepreneurs could receive would be limited to antipoverty transfers and probably interventions to connect them to wage employment. When wage employment is lacking, however, safety nets alone will not lead to a sustained increase in earnings and living standards. At the same time, it might be possible—and examples do exist—to have SSE programs that generate social benefits greater than social costs. These benefits would include increasing incomes and consumption levels above what could be achieved through safety nets, and reducing safety net expenditures and their associated opportunity cost. In addition, there can be positive externalities resulting from potentially higher investments in human capital. One set of programs would aim to improve the earnings generated by current activities, without attempting to change the nature of the work or individual traits. This outcome would be possible by improving pricing mechanisms, product quality, and production technologies to reduce costs and/or increase output and/or quality; or by expanding markets. Many subsistence farmers, for instance, could be better off simply by having access to better seeds, better products to protect their crops, and appropriate technology—even if their production is only for household consumption and does not generate external employment. Thus, interventions with the potential to increase the earnings of the self-employed are possible, without expecting subsistence entrepreneurs to change into vocational or transformational entrepreneurs. Such interventions include efforts to improve knowledge and upgrade technology, facilitate better access to equipment and inputs, and offer better opportunities to price and sell products. Some recent or ongoing experiments (e.g., Conley and Udry 2010; Gine and Yang 2009) are particularly concerned with finding good mechanisms to upgrade skills and facilitate the adoption of new technology. More complex interventions would require changes in the organization of a given business, aiming to facilitate entrepreneurs to engage in more transformative activities and/or to be integrated into value chains. Farmers, for example, could be involved in a processing business of their basic produce: trees into wood planks, fruits into frozen pulp or conserves and animals into meat. By bringing several small farmers or crafts people into associations or cooperatives and increasing production volumes, the resulting groups could take advantage of economies of scale and the local, regional, or national value chains often found in specific sectors such as food products, tourism, and textiles. For this type of intervention, it is reasonable to envisage that third parties with the necessary technical expertise—either for-profit or nonprofit entities—could develop the business plans and manage the implementation, including mobilizing the necessary resources and expertise. Many of these opportunities might not be exploited because of low expected private rates of return on investments with high associated risk, lack of local knowledge, coordination costs, or regulatory failures. The role of the public sector would be to facilitate the emergence of business that integrates subsistence entrepreneurs into more lucrative and transformative activities, including by ensuring access to skills, credit/grants, and basic infrastructure. What programs exist to promote self-employment and small-scale entrepreneurship? An inventory of 106 SSE programs, including both organizational approaches and specific entrepreneurship projects across all six World Bank regions, that aim to improve the earnings opportunities for self-employed workers was constructed. The inventory documented characteristics of SSE programs, supplemented by interviews with practitioners and experts. An emphasis was placed on programs that target the self-employed and businesses with 10 employees or fewer. Some programs discussed here are organizational approaches such as curricula or tools for entrepreneurial training that are adaptable to various projects (e.g., the International Labour Organization’s Know About Business initiative). Others are projects with heterogeneous implementation details. The inventory was drawn from three sources: (1) the Entrepreneurship Education and Training (EET) database created by the World Bank Team,Footnote10 (2) the Youth Employment Inventory databaseFootnote11; and (3) relevant World Bank projects with “entrepreneurship” and “self-employment” as keywords in the main stated objectives. In selecting programs for the inventory, the focus was on programs that directly address constraints of individual beneficiaries with respect to business activities as opposed to indirect approaches—such as the construction of business infrastructure, capacity building of financial institutions, or the facilitation of financial inclusion without the promotion of business activities. The inventory, although it may not be the universe of the SSE programs, presents the landscape of current programming in this area by capturing the main approaches and project across all six regions (see Fig. 3a for regional distribution of the programs). There were large variations in terms of design and implementation arrangements. Overall, the review suggests that many existing programs are unlikely to be suited to the needs of subsistence entrepreneurs.

Measurement of Unemployment in India - India's unemployment rate plunges to 7.6% in April-June 2022: NSO survey. In January-March 2022, the unemployment rate in India for persons aged 15 years and above was 8.2% in urban areas. It considers the activity status of a person for each day of the preceding seven days. The reference period here is a day. Normally if a person works for four hours or more during a day, he or she is considered as employed for the whole day.The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation monitors the National Sample Survey Office. They follow certain approaches to measure unemployment in India. They are – 

1. Usual Status Approach – This approach only considers individuals unemployed who have been majorly not working during the 365 days before the survey date. 

2. Weekly Status Approach – This approach considers individuals unemployed if they have not been working for hours or a day before the survey date. 

3. Daily Status Approach – This approach considers an individual unemployed even if he did not work for an hour on a particular day. 

Latest Unemployment stats
February 2019 saw the highest unemployment rate of 7.2 % since September 2016. 5.9 % was the unemployment rate in February 2018.
The employed individuals in February 2019 were approx 400 million. The labor participation was 42.7% in February 2019. Causes of nemployment in India In India, the unemployment rate is estimated by directly interviewing a large sample of randomly selected households. Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Consumer Pyramids panel of households includes over 174,405 households including over 522,000 members who are over 15 years old. Currently, it is quite elevated," Vyas added. During August, the unemployment was the highest in Haryana at 37.3 per cent followed by Jammu and Kashmir at 32.8 per cent, Rajasthan at 31.4 per cent, Jharkhand at 17.3 per cent and Tripura at 16.3 per cent, according to the data.

Causes of unemployment in India
 The Caste SystemThe caste system, a structure of social stratification that can potentially pervade virtually every aspect of life in India is a major factor in generating unemployment In some locations, certain kinds of work are prohibited for members of particular castes. This also leads to the result that work is often given to members of a certain community, rather than to those who truly deserve the job those who have the right skills
The result is higher levels of unemployment Inadequate Economic GrowthIndian economy is underdeveloped and role of economic growth is inadequate This slow growth fails to provide enough unemployment opportunities to the increasing population This means that as the population increases, the economy cannot keep up with demands for employment and an increasing share of people are unable to find work. The result is insufficient levels of employment nationwide. Increase in PopulationIndia’s population is predicted to exceed China’s by the year 2024; it will, furthermore, probably be the most populous country for the entirety of the 21st century. As the country’s economic growth cannot keep up with population growth, this leads to a larger share of the society being unemployed Agriculture is a Seasonal OccupationAgriculture offers unemployment for a large segment of the population, but only for several months out of the year. The result is that for a considerable portion of the year, many agricultural workers lack needed employment and income Loss of Small-Scale/Cottage IndustriesIndustrial development has made cottage and small-scale industries considerably less economically attractive, as they do not offer the economies of scale generated by large-scale mass production of goods. Oftentimes the demand for cheap, mass-produced goods outweighs the desire for goods that are handcrafted by those with very specific skill and expertise. The result is that the cottage and small-scale industry have significantly declined, and artisans have become unemployed as a result. Low Rates of Saving and lacks sufficient capital across the board. Likewise, savings are low and the result is that investment—which depends on savings—is also low. Were there higher rates of investment, new jobs would be created and the economy would have kickstarted Also, there is lack of investment in rural areas and tier 2 and tier 3 cities as well, as a result of which there is exists large untapped employment potential Ineffective (or absent) Economic PlanningProblematically, there have been no nationwide plans to account for the significant gap between labor supply (which is abundant) and labor demand (which is notably lower) It is crucial that the supply and demand of labor are in balance, to ensure that those who need jobs are able to get them; otherwise, many individuals will compete for one job. Labor Immobility Culturally, attachment and maintenance of proximity to family is a major priority for many Indian citizens. The result is that people avoid traveling long distances from their families in pursuit of employment. Additionally, language, religion, and climate can also contribute to low mobility of labor As one might expect, when many of those who might otherwise be suited to jobs are unable to travel to reach them, unemployment is magnified Job SpecializationJobs in the capitalist world have become highly specialised, but India’s education system does not provide the right training and specialisation needed for these jobs. Thus many people who are willing to work become unemployable due to lack of skills. Lack of essential skillingA study reveals that 33% of educated youth in India are unemployed due to a lack of future skills Millions of students in our country even after finishing schooling, remain devoid of hands-on learning and robust practical knowledge. The increasing population of the country. Low emphasis on educational and vocational skills of the working class. Less government support with legal complexities and low infrastructure. Less financial and market support to small scale industries. A large amount of workforce working in unorganized sectors.
Lack of educational skills for relevant employment. More focus on theoretical knowledge than practical knowledge. Complex licensing on business and lower investments. Low productivity of the agricultural sector which is the backbone of the Indian economy. Less participation of women in the workforce. Impact of Unemployment in India There is a direct connection of poverty to unemployment in the country. Indulgence in illegal activities due to money shortage and thus increase in crime. They become antisocial elements and start losing faith in the government. Loss of human resources of the nation. Falling of GDP due to an imbalance between the demand and supply in the market. Increasing the socio-economic cost of the state government by bearing their expenses. Impact of Globalisation on the Employment rate The LPG Policy of 1991 led to increasing competition between the foreign and local brands. This led to the transformation of organized sectors into unorganized. This led to a cut in eagles and a high level of unemployment for the workers. Steps Taken by Government to Boost Employment Rate The government came up with several schemes to boost the employment rate in the country. Some of them are – What are the 5 causes of unemployment?
This occurs due to a mismatch of skills in the labour market it can be caused by: Occupational immobilities. ... Occupational immobility occurs when there are barriers to the mobility of factors of production between different sectors of the economy leading to these factors remaining unemployed, or being used in ways that are not efficient Geographical immobilities. ... Geographical immobility refers to barriers people moving from one area to another to find work. There are good reasons why geographical immobility might exist: Family and social ties. The financial costs involved in moving home including the costs of selling a house and removal expenses. Technological change. ...
Structural change in the economy. ...
See: structural unemployment.unemployment resulting from industrial reorganization, typically due to technological change, rather than fluctuations in supply or demand. What is the greatest cause of structural unemployment?
The root cause of structural unemployment is the skills mismatch. The economy as a whole is functional. This means that there are still more jobs in the economy than there are people to do the jobs

1. Integrated Rural Development Programme, an initiative to create employment opportunities in rural areas. This became official in 1980 intending to provide full employment. 

2. Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment was another focusing on youth. The aim was to help unemployed rural youth from age of 18 till 35 years to adopt skills for self-employment opportunities. Though the emphasis was on SC/ST Youth and Women of the rural areas.

3. RSETI/RUDEST was an initiative by Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Educational Trust, Syndicate Bank, and Canara Bank. The idea was to mitigate the unemployment problem among the youth. This became official in 1982 with the setting up of the Rural Development and Self Employment Training Institute. The acronym for it is RUDSETI and is looked after by banks with coordination with the Government of India and the State. What is the benefit of Pmegp loan? The Prime Minister Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) is a Government of India-backed credit-linked subsidy scheme. Under this scheme, beneficiaries can get a subsidy amounting to 15-35% of the project cost from the government.

4. National Rural Employment program and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme merged to form the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana. The JRY became official in 1989 with a cost ratio of 80:20 between the center and the States.

5. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act is a 2005 scheme for creating employment. The schemes make sure to provide 100 days of paid employment to individuals from families willing to do unskilled labor-intensive work. The RIght to work act comes under this scheme. 

6. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana is a 2015 scheme to enable Indian youth to move towards industry-relevant skill training. This is to help them in securing a better livelihood for the future.

7. Start-Up India Scheme is another 2016 launched scheme for developing entrepreneurship opportunities. It aims to create an environment to promote and support entrepreneurship opportunities across the country. The Startup India Scheme is an initiative of the Government of India in 2016. The primary objective of Startup India is the promotion of startups, generation of employment, and wealth creation. The Startup India has initiated several programs for building a robust startup ecosystem and transforming India into a country of job creators instead of job seekers. These programs are managed by the Department for Industrial Policy and Promotion (DPIIT).

8. The Stand-Up India Scheme is a banking scheme that provides loans between Rs 10 lakh to 1 crore to SC/ST and women borrowers. The target of each bank is to assign loans to each of the categories setting up a greenfield enterprise. The objective of the Stand-Up India scheme is to facilitate bank loans between 10 lakh and 1 Crore to at least one Scheduled Caste (SC) or Scheduled Tribe (ST) borrower and at least one woman borrower per bank branch for setting up a Greenfield Project.

9. National Skill Development Mission is a 2014 campaign that promotes the idea of  ‘Skill India’. The main agenda is to improve existing skill training initiatives and combine them. The scale and quality of skilling efforts, with speed, is what they want to work on. The Skill India Mission was launched in 2015 by the Central Government to make Indian youth belonging to rural and urban areas competent for employment. It aims to empower India’s youth by offering necessary skills and training to increase their chances of getting jobs in various sectors. This also boosts an individual's productivity and knowledge.

The initiative also aims to educate more than 40 crore individuals and create a workforce by 2022.  It does so by offering different courses and classes for free.

The National Skill Development Mission takes account of the proceedings through a result-oriented structure that connects with modern business requirements. Technically, this scheme takes care of convergence, institutional training, overseas employment, leveraging public infrastructure and sustainable livelihoods.  Interested individuals can register themselves through an online process and enlist for a preferred course. Let’s check what the objectives of the Skill India initiative are to understand this scheme better. The Next Step - Many manufacturers in India have labor-intensive work like food processing, hardware, apparel, and more. They can create special package jobs for individuals.  There are several determinants of geographic labor mobility. The ease of movement and migration and the economic incentives to relocate are the main determinants of an economy’s fluidity of geographic labor mobility. Physical, geographic, and political barriers to movement are key factors that can make moving more difficult. At the economic level, a region's size, distance, and aggregate job opportunities determine the geographic labor mobility. At the personal level, however, determinants of the individual’s specific personal circumstances, such as family situation, housing issues, local infrastructure, and individual education affect geographic labor mobility. An economy's level of trade is also a direct factor in the geographic labor mobility of its workforce. For example, increasing the level of domestic and international trade requires that offices and other institutions be opened in various parts of a country, increasing job opportunities in these locations. The increase in government jobs in fields like health, police, education, and more. There should be decentralized industrial activities for equal employment opportunities in regions. Rural area development will control migration and reduce urban job pressure too. The youth should remain the center of focus for entrepreneurship projects. Women should receive more liberation in workplaces. The education system should focus on skill development more.A more effective scheme must be launched like Skill India, Startup, and Stand-Up India. The 2020 UN sustainable goals must align with national goals. The enhancement of human capital will help. Creation of decent quality of jobs in formal and informal sectors. There should be equity in the capital and labor market. Self-employment must get support as well as private sectors. The outbreak of the COVID‑19 virus poses an unprecedented, major challenge to economies and societies. The global economy faces its biggest danger since the financial crisis. Containing the epidemic and protecting people is the top priority. Reinforcing health systems and medical research to ensure that appropriate care can be provided to all those infected by the virus comes first; but governments also need to find fast and effective solutions to deal with the economic and social impact on workers and companies of both the disease itself and the effects of the containment measures taken to limit the spread of the virus.

This crisis is of a different nature than previous ones, and it requires a different mix and timing of policy responses. The spread of the COVID‑19 virus interrupted international supply chains, notably with China, and is forcing workers to remain at home because they are quarantined, sick or subject to lockdowns. Such a “supply shock” is very difficult to address with standard monetary and fiscal policy tools. As companies are finding themselves forced to interrupt and scale down operations, they lose the capacity to continue paying their employees’ wages. This threatens households’ incomes and, combined with growing uncertainty, reduces household consumption – a “demand shock” that will put further pressure on companies and their employees as well as on independent workers. In addition to fighting the public-health emergency, governments therefore have to move swiftly to provide employers and independent workers with liquidity and strengthen income support for workers and their families.

This note is a first attempt at setting out the employment and social-policy tools at governments’ disposal to counter the economic and social impact of the COVID‑19 crisis. Many of these measures are already being taken by countries around world; others will follow as the situation evolves over the coming days and weeks. This brief is therefore accompanied by an overview table of countries’ policy responses, available online, which will be continuously updated. Worldwide around 55 percent of workers are self-employed, and about three-quarters of these are likely to be subsistence entrepreneurs. These self-employed workers include farmers and own-account workers, many of whom presumably work in small household enterprises without pay. A large proportion of these workers live in poor or vulnerable households. In Sub-Saharan Africa, for instance, close to 80 percent of the self-employed are poor as will be discussed below. While numerous countries have adopted programs that aim to promote self-employment and entrepreneurship, the design of such programs seems ill suited to respond to the needs of those who engage in entrepreneurial activities not by choice, but by necessity. Haryana, J&K and Rajasthan have the highest levels of unemployment rate — each with over 30% of the unemployment rate. According to the data released by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), India's unemployment rate in August rose to 8.3%. This paper discusses the potential public policy role of programs aimed at improving the livelihoods of subsistence entrepreneurs. Subsistence entrepreneurs refer to those who are self-employed out of necessity and who often lack skills and entrepreneurial traits.Footnote2 Therefore, they are different from other types of entrepreneurs who are self-employed with new ideas and risk taking attitudes with growth orientation.Footnote3 The paper begins by looking at the characteristics of self-employed workers, the different types of entrepreneurs, and the constraints they face. It then analyzes the potential role of public policy in improving the earning opportunities of subsistence entrepreneurs, the types of programs that could be used, and general issues to be considered when designing and implementing pilot interventions. The focus of the programs to support subsistence entrepreneurs would be to improve their livelihoods and reduce poverty as opposed to promoting cutting-edge innovation or growth. The paper has four main messages. First, in the context of a global strategy to increase the incomes of the poorest workers, it is important to identify interventions to support subsistence entrepreneurs. The constraints they face and the type of support they need differ from those of vocational or transformational entrepreneurs. Second, the evidence of what works for subsistence workers is limited. A few programs have been successful, but they tend to be small, and there is limited knowledge available about design and implementation in different contexts and with different types of beneficiaries. Third, given prevalent market failures faced by the poor, interventions to complement safety net programs and improve the livelihoods of subsistence entrepreneurs are required. Fourth, going forward, it is critical to adopt a more systematic approach to designing, implementing, and evaluating new programs. Special attention should be paid to eligibility, targeting, and profiling mechanisms; selection of businesses to be supported; adaptation of core interventions (training, access to finance, advisory and mentoring services, and networking) to beneficiary needs; whether and how programs are integrated into subsectors and/or value chains; and delivery mechanisms for different services.
Understanding self-employment and the role of public policy
Who are the self-employed?
Most workers in middle- and, particularly, low-income countries are self-employed: either farmers or own-account workers in nonfarm activities (Fig. 1a). The share of workers in agriculture drops as a country’s income per capita increases. Even in the average middle-income country, however, around half of workers are self-employed, and three-quarters of the non-agriculture jobs are own-account work. In Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, for instance, where the large majority is self-employed, about 20 percent of the employed are own-account or unpaid workers outside agriculture, and more than half are agricultural workers Individual characteristics such as education, age, and gender are important determinants of employment status including self-employment. Gindling and Newhouse (2014), based on household data from over 100 countriesFootnote4 examined the characteristics of the developing world’s self-employed. The main descriptions are as follows: own-account workers and agricultural workers have low educational outcomes, while employers and wage workers tend to be better educated; self-employment tends to become more common with age, with an exception of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa particularly in agriculture where the majority of young workers find opportunities from self-employment; gender effects also tend to be country specific with women are more likely to be self-employed than men in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia unlike in Europe and Central Asia and in Latin America and the Caribbean. Many of the self-employed worldwide, subsistence or severely constrained entrepreneurs, live in poor households (Fig. 2). Given that households often have more than one self-employed individual, the high prevalence of poverty attests to the low level of productivity and earnings of these businesses and activities, particularly in agriculture. Clearly, there are important differences across regions which reflect the income level of the countries. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 80 percent of the self-employed live in poor households, compared to only about 20 percent in either Europe and Central Asia or Latin America and the Caribbean.

The causes of corruption in India include excessive regulations, complicated tax and licensing systems, numerous government departments with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly of government controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes.

 कूटस्थं बोधमद्वैतमात्मानं परिभावय । अभासोहंभ्रमंमुक्त्वाभावंबाह्यमथांतरम् ॥

तदनन्यत्तद्द्वेधाभूद्धरितमेकं रक्तमपरम् ।
तत्र यद्रक्तं तत्पुंसो रूपमभूत् । यद्धरितं तन्मायायाः ।
तौ समगच्छतः । तयोर्वीर्यमेवमनन्दत् । तदवर्धत ।
तदण्डमभूधैमम् । तत्परिणममानमभूत् । ततः
परमेष्ठी व्यजायत ।



Of the 22.05 crore applications received from 2014-15 to 2021-22, only 7.22 lakh or 0.33 per cent, were recommended for appointment in different Central government departments, the government informed the Lok Sabha on Wednesday. Under this scheme, loans and subsidy will be provided to the religious minority communities with the help of Nationalized / Scheduled banks to start or improve a small-scale handicraft industry, service sector and agro-based activities. 33% of the unit cost or maximum of Rs.


Food is the medicine cure from all diseases Or has been helpful in increasing the ailments. We have to accept this all the time What kind of food is strengthening the roots of diseases And the cost of medicines and treatment is also increasing. All this is in front of all of us. Properly selected food keeps the stomach healthy and aids in the prevention of diseases Along with good sleep, it also keeps the routine in routine. Destroys constipation.
Multigrain porridge is the best, but it is useful for all ages in moderation and enthusiasm and it is also a cure for all diseases!

भोजन ही सभी बीमारियों से राहत अथवा बीमारी बढाने में सहायक रहा है । यह हमें हर समय स्वीकार करना पड़ेगा ही किस तरह के भोजन से बीमारियों की जड़ें मजबूत हो रही है एंव दवाईयों और इलाज में खर्च बढ भी तो रहा है । यह सब हम सब के सामने है । उचित चयनित भोजन पेट को तंदरूस्त रखता है और बीमारियों की रोकथाम में सहायक है अच्छी नींद के साथ नित्यकर्म में को सुचारू भी रखता है । कब्ज का नाश करता है । मल्टीग्रेन दलिया सर्वश्रेष्ट है संयमित और उत्साह से सभी उम्र में उपयोगी तो है ही और सभी बीमारियों में इलाज भी!

Rate & Review

Be the first to write a Review!