Chapter - 6: Ātma Samyama Yoga
This chapter of 47 verses deals with all aspects of self-control needed for renunciation in action. Here Arjuna’s queries as to what would be the fate of man in his efforts at self- control were he to fail midway, (v37). Even if it were the case, assures Krishna, still one wouldn't come to grief here or hereafter (v40). In this context of the renunciation in action, the yoga-class that follows (v10-v17) informative though, is but a square peg in the round philosophical hole that this discourse is, and so the following verses are but interpolations, even going by what is stated in the very opening verse by Krishna:
Forego none if forsake chores
Eye not gain ’n thou be freed.
anāśhritaḥ karma-phalaṁ kāryaṁ karma karoti yaḥ
sa sannyāsī cha yogī cha na niragnir na chākriyaḥ
yogī yuñjīta satatam ātmānaṁ rahasi sthitaḥ
ekākī yata-chittātmā nirāśhīr aparigrahaḥ
Those seeking Yogice state must reside in seclusion, constantly engaged in meditation
with a controlled mind and body, getting rid of desires and possessions for enjoyment.
śhuchau deśhe pratiṣhṭhāpya sthiram āsanam ātmanaḥ
nātyuchchhritaṁ nāti-nīchaṁ chailājina-kuśhottaram
To practice Yog, one should make an āsan (seat) in a sanctified place, by placing kuśh grass, deer skin, and a cloth, one over the other. The āsan should be neither too high nor too low.
tatraikāgraṁ manaḥ kṛitvā yata-chittendriya-kriyaḥ
upaviśhyāsane yuñjyād yogam ātma-viśhuddhaye
Seated firmly on it, the yogi should strive to purify the mind by focusing it in meditation with one pointed concentration, controlling all thoughts and activities.
samaṁ kāya-śhiro-grīvaṁ dhārayann achalaṁ sthiraḥ
samprekṣhya nāsikāgraṁ svaṁ diśhaśh chānavalokayan
He must hold the body, neck, and head firmly in a straight line, and gaze at the tip of the nose, without allowing the eyes to wander.
praśhāntātmā vigata-bhīr brahmachāri-vrate sthitaḥ
manaḥ sanyamya mach-chitto yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ
Thus, with a serene, fearless, and unwavering mind, and staunch in the vow of celibacy, the vigilant yogi should meditate on me, having me alone as the supreme goal.
yuñjann evaṁ sadātmānaṁ yogī niyata-mānasaḥ
śhantiṁ nirvāṇa-paramāṁ mat-sansthām adhigachchhati
Thus, constantly keeping the mind absorbed in me, the yogi of disciplined mind attains nirvāṇ, and abides in me in supreme peace.
nātyaśhnatastu yogo ’sti na chaikāntam anaśhnataḥ
na chāti-svapna-śhīlasya jāgrato naiva chārjuna
O Arjun, those who eat too much or eat too little, sleep too much or too little, cannot attain success in Yog.
yuktāhāra-vihārasya yukta-cheṣhṭasya karmasu
yukta-svapnāvabodhasya yogo bhavati duḥkha-hā
But those who are temperate in eating and recreation, balanced in work, and regulated in sleep, can mitigate all sorrows by practicing Yog.
Besides the irrelevant above, the following verses (v41-v42) appetizing though for the yoga enthusiasts, are clear interpolations for the same reason as the preceding ones.
prāpya puṇya-kṛitāṁ lokān uṣhitvā śhāśhvatīḥ samāḥ
śhuchīnāṁ śhrīmatāṁ gehe yoga-bhraṣhṭo ’bhijāyate
The unsuccessful yogis, upon death, go to the abodes of the virtuous. After dwelling there for many ages, they are again reborn in the earth plane, into a family of pious and prosperous people.
atha vā yoginām eva kule bhavati dhīmatām
etad dhi durlabhataraṁ loke janma yad īdṛiśham
Else, if they had developed dispassion due to long practice of Yog, they are born into a family endowed with divine wisdom. Such a birth is very difficult to attain in this world.
Hence, these irrelevant ‘yoga ten’ are clear interpolations, and if we were to concede the irreverent argument of some that they would have been incorporated later for holistic reasons, then that in itself is an admission of interpolations in the original text.