Chapter - 9: Raja–Vidya–Raja–Guhya Yoga
This chapter of 34 verses describing various ways of attaining the Supreme lends itself readily for interpolations, and what is more given the seemingly incomplete exposition of the promised dharma in v2, possibly in the in vogue Gita, there could be some omissions that the original had contained.
At the outset alert, Krishna tells Arjuna
Thus spoke the Lord:
Unenvied as thou I would tell
The art of leading fruitful life.
śhrī bhagavān uvācha
idaṁ tu te guhyatamaṁ pravakṣhyāmyanasūyave
jñānaṁ vijñāna-sahitaṁ yaj jñātvā mokṣhyase ’śhubhāt,
So, it goes without saying that until and unless one overcomes his envious tendencies, ‘the art of leading fruitful life’ that Krishna revealed would be of no avail, but neither Gita’s commentators nor the gita-chāryās seldom, if ever, stress upon this enabling condition for grasping Gita’s philosophy!
However, hoping that our readers would have grasped the import of Krishna’s above averment for their self-enlightenment, now back the Gita’s interpolative course with the following verses.
Ch9, V2 ,
Supreme secret that’s sacred
Profound dharma for mankind
Fair and simple, practicable.
rāja-vidyā rāja-guhyaṁ pavitram idam uttamam
pratyakṣhāvagamaṁ dharmyaṁ su-sukhaṁ kartum avyayam
sarva-bhūtāni kaunteya prakṛitiṁ yānti māmikām
kalpa-kṣhaye punas tāni kalpādau visṛijāmyaham
At the end of one kalp, all living beings merge into My primordial material energy. At the beginning of the next creation, O son of Kunti, I manifest them again.
As can be seen, the above contravenes the following (Ch8, v15-v16) besides echoing the interpolative v18 - v19 of this chapter.
Having come to stay with Me
Get they rid of births and deaths.
mām upetya punar janma duḥkhālayam aśhāśhvatam
nāpnuvanti mahātmānaḥ sansiddhiṁ paramāṁ gatāḥ
Journey to Brahman holds return ticket
Journeys back none abode from Mine.
ā-brahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino ’rjuna
mām upetya tu kaunteya punar janma na vidyate
Next comes v15 but before that, so as to see it in its interpolative colours, we must view its pristine substance as under
With Me in mind well-meaning
See they beings sourced in Me.
mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivīṁ prakṛitim āśhritāḥ
bhajantyananya-manaso jñātvā bhūtādim avyayam
With right intent ’n focus
Such Me worship with true faith.
satataṁ kīrtayanto māṁ yatantaśh cha dṛiḍha-vratāḥ
namasyantaśh cha māṁ bhaktyā nitya-yuktā upāsate
Now comes the ritualistic version of v14
jñāna-yajñena chāpyanye yajanto mām upāsate
ekatvena pṛithaktvena bahudhā viśhvato-mukham
Others, offering the sacrifice of knowledge, worship me with oneness, separateness and also multifaceted diversity.
Apparently, this is to facilitate v16 to v19 that are but the forerunners to V20 of the next Ch10, and the ritualistic V20-V21 of this one
ahaṁ kratur ahaṁ yajñaḥ svadhāham aham auṣhadham
mantro ’ham aham evājyam aham agnir ahaṁ hutam
It is I who am the Vedic ritual, I am the sacrifice, and I am the oblation offered to the ancestors. I am the medicinal herb, and I am the Vedic mantra. I am the clarified butter, I am the fire and the act of offering.
pitāham asya jagato mātā dhātā pitāmahaḥ
vedyaṁ pavitram oṁkāra ṛik sāma yajur eva cha
Of this universe, I am the Father; I am also the Mother, the Sustainer, and the Grandsire. I am the purifier, the goal of knowledge, the sacred syllable Om. I am theRigVeda, Sāma Veda, and the Yajur Veda.
gatir bhartā prabhuḥ sākṣhī nivāsaḥ śharaṇaṁ suhṛit
prabhavaḥ pralayaḥ sthānaṁ nidhānaṁ bījam avyayam
I am the Supreme Goal of all living beings, and I am also their Sustainer, Master, Witness, Abode, Shelter, and Friend. I am the Origin, End, and Resting Place of creation; I am the Storehouse and Eternal Seed.
tapāmyaham ahaṁ varṣhaṁ nigṛihṇāmyutsṛijāmi cha
amṛitaṁ chaiva mṛityuśh cha sad asach chāham arjuna
I radiate heat as the sun, and I withhold, as well as send forth rain. I am immortality as well as death personified, O Arjun. I am the spirit as well as matter.
trai-vidyā māṁ soma-pāḥ pūta-pāpā
yajñair iṣhṭvā svar-gatiṁ prārthayante
te puṇyam āsādya surendra-lokam
aśhnanti divyān divi deva-bhogān
Those who are inclined to the fruitive activity described in the Vedas worship Me through ritualistic sacrifices. Being purified from sin by drinking the Soma juice, which is the remnant of the yajñas, they seek to go to heaven. By virtue of their pious deeds, they go to the abode of Indra, the king of heaven, and enjoy the pleasures of the celestial gods.
te taṁ bhuktvā swarga-lokaṁ viśhālaṁ
kṣhīṇe puṇye martya-lokaṁ viśhanti
evaṁ trayī-dharmam anuprapannā
gatāgataṁ kāma-kāmā labhante
When they have enjoyed the vast pleasures of heaven, the stock of their merits being exhausted, they return to the earthly plane. Thus, those who follow the Vedic rituals, desiring objects of enjoyment, repeatedly come and go in this world.
Now it may be seen that the following v23-v25 are but interpolative extrapolations of
Those as meditate ’n worship
Them I take My wings under.
ananyāśh chintayanto māṁ ye janāḥ paryupāsate
teṣhāṁ nityābhiyuktānāṁ yoga-kṣhemaṁ vahāmyaham
ye ’pyanya-devatā-bhaktā yajante śhraddhayānvitāḥ
te ’pi mām eva kaunteya yajantyavidhi-pūrvakam
Even those devotees who worship other deities, filled with faith, they also worship me only, O Kaunteya, (but) incorrectly.
ahaṁ hi sarva-yajñānāṁ bhoktā cha prabhureva cha
na tu mām abhijānanti tattvenātaśh chyavanti te
For I am the recipient and also the lord of all sacrificial rituals, but they do not know me in essence. That is why they fall.
yānti deva-vratā devān pitṝīn yānti pitṛi-vratāḥ
bhūtāni yānti bhūtejyā yānti mad-yājino ’pi mām
Those who worship deities attain the deities, those who worship ancestors go to the ancestors, those who worship spirits attain the spirits, but those who worship me attain me.
It may be noted that for all spiritual purposes, this chapter would have ended thus:
Start as wicked My worship
Take them all as well realized.
api chet su-durāchāro bhajate mām ananya-bhāk
sādhur eva sa mantavyaḥ samyag vyavasito hi saḥ
Tend I them then turn even
Devout Mine none go restive.
kṣhipraṁ bhavati dharmātmā śhaśhvach-chhāntiṁ nigachchhati
kaunteya pratijānīhi na me bhaktaḥ praṇaśhyati
But then we have the inane extension to the above as under:
māṁ hi pārtha vyapāśhritya ye ’pi syuḥ pāpa-yonayaḥ
striyo vaiśhyās tathā śhūdrās te ’pi yānti parāṁ gatim
Surely, O Paartha, even those who are born of sinful origin – women, traders, and also Shudras (labourers), they attain the supreme state by taking refuge in me.
This, to say the least, is reprehensible for it is not only caste-ist but also sexist besides being obnoxious, and there must be something drastically wrong with those votaries of the Gita ‘as it is’, who believe that Krishna would have indeed held that view.
Whatever, the moot point is, if as implied, Brahmin and Kshatriya women (no exemption is given to them as they are clubbed with Vaisyas and Shudras, men and women together) were to be born of sinful womb (actually it is pāpa-yoni, sinful vulva, in the sloka), it goes without saying that their male siblings would not have been any differently born, but it is yet stated in the same vein that Brahmin men are worship-worthy! Yet this nonsensical verse is taken as Krishna’s word, equally senselessly by the Shudras, who have come to grudge the Gita on that score as well!
But lo, in the very next chapter, Krishna is that which makes woman’s glory!
I’m the death that devours all
As well brings forth that beings
Besides what makes woman’s glory
mṛityuḥ sarva-haraśh chāham udbhavaśh cha bhaviṣhyatām
kīrtiḥ śhrīr vāk cha nārīṇāṁ smṛitir medhā dhṛitiḥ kṣhamā
And here follows some prevarication, as if, to dilute V32’s obnoxity.
kiṁ punar brāhmaṇāḥ puṇyā bhaktā rājarṣhayas tathā
anityam asukhaṁ lokam imaṁ prāpya bhajasva mām
What then to speak about kings and sages with meritorious deeds? So, having come to this transient and joyless world, engage in devotion unto Me.
Now maybe to assuage the hurt feelings is,
man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru
mām evaiṣhyasi yuktvaivam ātmānaṁ mat-parāyaṇaḥ
Always think of Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me, and offer obeisance to Me. Having dedicated your mind and body to Me, you will certainly come to Me.
This was indeed borrowed from the following.
Ch18, V 65
If one remains to Me firm
It’s My promise I take him
man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru
mām evaiṣhyasi satyaṁ te pratijāne priyo ‘si me
Needles to say, the above cited fourteen verses are but inane interpolations deserving to be blue-penciled like the others in this codification for rectification.